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注意預防工作中的職業病

2014-05-14 本文已影響 3.12W人 

There are ways to break the vicious circle, and they don't necessarily require the most expensive office chair or expert intervention, according to Tony Biafore, an ergonomics expert president of Ergonetics. "A lot of companies think they can solve ergonomics problems with a one-size-fits-all approach, or by buying the most expensive keyboards or office chairs," Biafore says. "Fancy ergonomic equipment is worthless if you don't identify how you're using them."
工作學專家Tony Biafore也是Ergonetics公司的總裁,他說要打破這個惡性循環還是有辦法的,而且並不需要昂貴的辦公椅或者專家介入。他說,“很多公司以爲他們可以一勞永逸的解決工作學的問題,要麼就買最貴的鍵盤或者辦公椅。如果你不清楚要怎樣使用的話,新奇的工作學設備是一文不值的。”

注意預防工作中的職業病

Decrease the Risk Factors 減少風險因素

To avoid pain and possibly chronic problems, ergonomics experts recommend several ways of developing a low-risk working posture:
爲了避免疼痛和可能的慢性傷害,專家們推薦下列能降低工作姿勢風險的方法:

* Sit naturally. "Many people perch on their chair, lean forward, and tuck their feet under, especially when they're concentrating," Biafore said. Notice how you sit, and make adjustments to the chair or to your posture if any part of your body is experiencing tightness, strain, or pain.
採用自然坐姿。Biafore說,“一些人坐在椅子上,身體前傾,把腿縮在下面。尤其在他們專心做事情的時候,”注意你的坐姿,如果你身體的任何部分覺得緊張、受壓迫或者疼痛的時候,要調整你的椅子或者你的姿勢。

* Type right. You shouldn't have to change your seated posture or angle your hands to type. The keyboard should come to you. If it doesn't, adjust your seating position, or ask for a keyboard tray.
正確的打字。你不應該不得不改變坐姿或者彎曲雙手來打字。鍵盤應該就着你的高度。如果鍵盤的位置不合適就調整你的椅子位置或者弄一個鍵盤託。

* Check your viewpoint. Your eyes should naturally gaze at the middle of the computer screen. If you have to look up or down, move the display. This goes for placement of paper documents as well -- you shouldn't have to crane your neck to see them.
檢查你的視線。你的雙眼應該可以自然的盯住電腦屏幕的中間。如果你不得不向上或者向下看,調整顯示器的位置。這也適用於紙質文檔的位置

* Catch the mouse problem. If you have to reach for it, then your seated posture may be out of whack.
鼠標的問題。如果你要伸手夠才能拿到鼠標,你的坐姿肯定有問題。

* Take breaks. You should get up about five minutes every hour to get out of your chair, get a drink, or just walk to the next cubicle. Young also recommended taking micro-breaks, of about 10 seconds every 15 minutes to rest your eyes and hands.
定時休息。你應該工作一個小時就站起來休息五分鐘左右,去喝點水或者只是走到隔壁的格子間裏。Young還推薦短時休息,大約每工作15分鐘就讓眼睛和手放鬆10秒種。

* Speak up. Report any problem to facilities, HR, or, if your company has one, an ergonomics specialist. If you've identified the problem as merely the need for a wrist pad, an adjustable chair, or a movable display, it's in the company's interest to comply.
有問題就說出來。如果公司設備有問題,就向公司的HR或者工作學家(如果你公司有的話)報告。如果你覺得問題的解決只需要一個鼠標墊、一把能調節高矮的辦公椅或者一個可以移動的顯示器的話,公司有解決問題的義務。

Laptop computers present a special challenge because they require users to lean too far forward and reach for the keyboard, according to Biafore. If you can, use an external keyboard and a mouse, and prop up the screen to replicate an LED monitor, Biafore suggested.
Biafore說,筆記本電腦存在一個問題就是需要使用者很前傾才能夠到鍵盤。如果可以的話,還是儘量使用外接鍵盤和鼠標,再用一個可以移動的LED顯示器。

Many changes can be small -- like adjusting the seat position or raising your arms off the desk -- and can be done without consulting an ergonomics expert. But remember that one change you make could throw off something else. "The work station should fit your body like a comfortable pair of shoes," Young said.
很多問題的解決其實只需要小小的改變——比如調整你的坐姿或者把你的手臂擡高離開桌子——這些都不需要諮詢工作學專家。但是這些小改變可以擺脫很多問題。“工作間對你的身體來說應該像一雙合腳的鞋子。”


Making adjustments to your workstation requires paying close attention to your body. "Any kind of pain is a signal, and if you cover it up with medication, or even getting acupuncture, without addressing the underlying cause, it will only get worse," Liu said. "Ultimately the best doctor is yourself -- only you can figure out exactly what's not working and how to fix it."
調整工作設備需要你仔細留意自己的身體。“任何程度的疼痛都是一個信號,如果你只是用藥物來對付它、甚至去鍼灸卻不尋找深層原因的話,這會變得更糟,”Liu說,“說到底最好的醫生是自己——只有你自己才能知道究竟是什麼不起作用、怎樣去調整。”

Common Injury Causes 常見的病痛原因

The top culprits of what experts call repetitive strain disorders include:
專家認爲會導致重複性壓迫損傷的罪魁禍首有下面幾個:

* Sitting in an unnatural posture for a long time.
長時間保持不自然的坐姿。

* Not allowing recovery time.
不給自己留出恢復的時間。

* Shallow breathing.
呼吸短促。

* Repetitive motions, such as using the phone, typing with bent wrists and using a mouse.
重複性的動作,比如打電話、用彎曲的手腕打字或者使用鼠標。

* Using force or pressure, such as pinching pens, gripping the mouse too hard, or pounding the keyboard.
過度用力,比如摁筆、把鼠標攥的太緊或者猛擊鍵盤。

Even emotional stress can lead to strain and pain. "People are particularly stressed out right now, and often emotional stress turns to physical stress, which turns to worse posture, which turns to pain, which turns to more stress," says Wendy Young, a certified ergonomist in Houston and author of the e-book, .
甚至心理壓力也能導致壓迫和疼痛。Wendy Young是一位工作學學者,他說,“現在的人們壓力太大了,心理壓力經常轉化爲生理上的壓力,這會導致人們採用更糟糕的工作姿勢,進而引起疼痛,又轉化爲更大的壓力。”

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