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荷蘭或準“人生完整者”安樂死

2015-09-13 本文已影響 3.2W人 

只要你覺得活夠了,即使你身體健康,你也可以選擇安樂死而且還不犯法。荷蘭衛生部和司法部12日向議會遞交了一份提案,要求將該國安樂死的合法對象擴展至感到“人生完整”的人。衛生部長迪絲•斯希普斯稱新制度將僅限於老年羣體,他們希望在與各方的磋商下,在2017年年底前起草相關法案。

The Dutch government intends to draft a law that would legalise assisted suicide for people who feel they have “completed life” but are not necessarily terminally ill.
荷蘭政府計劃起草一項法案,讓那些感到“人生完整”但不一定處在絕症晚期的人可以合法進行安樂死。

The Netherlands was the first country to legalise euthanasia, in 2002, but only for patients who were considered to be suffering unbearable pain with no hope of a cure.
2002年,荷蘭成爲首個安樂死合法化的國家,但安樂死對象僅限於遭到難以忍受的疼痛折磨且沒有治癒希望的病患。

荷蘭或準“人生完整者”安樂死

But in a letter to parliament on Wednesday, the health and justice ministers said that people who “have a well-considered opinion that their life is complete, must, under strict and careful criteria, be allowed to finish that life in a manner dignified for them”.
不過,衛生部和司法部12日向議會遞交了一份文件,稱“在嚴格謹慎的評判標準下,必須允許經過深思熟慮認爲自己的人生已經完整的人以有尊嚴的方式結束他們的生命。”

The proposal is likely to provoke critics who say the scope of Dutch euthanasia policy has already expanded beyond its original boundaries, with “unbearable suffering” not only applying to people with terminal diseases but also to some with mental illnesses and dementia.
該提案中,不僅是晚期絕症患者,一些精神疾病與癡呆症患者也符合“無法忍受的折磨”這一情況,這很可能激怒那些認爲該國安樂死政策範圍已經超出其最初邊界的批評人士。

The euthanasia policy has widespread backing in Dutch society, and cases have risen by double digits every year for more than a decade as more patients request it and more doctors are willing to carry it out. Euthanasia accounted for 5,516 deaths in the Netherlands in 2015, or 3.9% of all deaths nationwide.
安樂死政策在荷蘭獲得了廣泛支持,由於越來越多的病人要求安樂死,且更多的醫生願意執行安樂死,十多年來安樂死案例每年以兩位數的速度不斷增長。2015年,荷蘭的安樂死案例爲5516起,佔全國死亡總人數的3.9%。

Edith Schippers, the health minister, wrote in the letter that “because the wish for a self-chosen end of life primarily occurs in the elderly, the new system will be limited to” them.
衛生部長伊迪絲•斯希普斯在信件中寫道:“因爲希望自主選擇結束生命的主要是老年人,新制度將僅限於老年羣體。”

She did not define a threshold age.
她並沒有明確年齡門檻。

Although details remained to be worked out, the new law would require “careful guidance and vetting ahead of time with a ‘death assistance provider’ with a medical background, who has also been given additional training”.
儘管細節有待制定,但新法律將需要得到“具有醫學背景、經過特殊培訓的‘安樂死執行者’的悉心指導和提前審批。”

Other aspects of the law would include safety mechanisms including third-party checks, reviews and supervision, she said.
斯希普斯表示,法案的其他方面包括第三方檢查、複覈和監管等安全機制。

The proposal comes as a surprise because a commission enlisted to study the idea of allowing a “completed life” extension to current policy concluded there was no need for it.
這一提案讓人大跌眼鏡,因爲受命對這一想法進行研究的委員會的結論是沒有必要允許現行政策擴展至“人生完整”的人。

The ministers disagreed. “The cabinet is of the opinion that a request for help (in dying) from people who suffer unbearably and have no hope without an underlying medical reason can be a legitimate request“.
部長們不同意該結論。“內閣的觀點是絕望而無法忍受折磨的人不基於醫學原因的安樂死請求也可以是合法的請求。”

They hope to draft a law, in consultation with doctors, ethicists and other experts, by the end of 2017.
他們希望在與醫生、倫理學家和其他專家的磋商下,在2017年年底前起草出一項相關法案。

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